Religious Ethics

The Religious Ethics Area is concerned with the meaning, merits, and validity of religion for the lives of human and non-human animals and the ordering of societies and ecosystems. As such, the Area addresses problems of the good life, justice, and the common good. Study in the history, methods, and theories of religious and non-religious ethics is essential to work in the area. All students are encouraged to pursue work in pertinent areas of the University outside of the Divinity School.  For example, the examination of specific moral problems and the study of comparative religious ethics require work in the relevant languages as well as in the social, natural, and historical sciences or in the professions.


Sarah E. FredericksStephen C. Meredith, Richard B. MillerMartha C. Nussbaum, William Schweiker, Laurie Zoloth

NB: Information pertains to all students accepted in 2017 and forward. Current doctoral students may opt to take the exams listed below. 

Students admitted prior to 2017 may take Comprehensive Exams from the previous RETH reading lists and instructions, which can be found here (PDF).

Statement of Written and Oral Qualifying Examinations

A student concentrating in Religious Ethics will take three written examinations in the Area, one outside of the Area, and write a paper, all of which are to be defended at the oral examination.   Students are required to take Religious Ethics I: Religious and Theological Ethics, and Religious Ethics II: Moral Theory and Philosophical Ethics. Students are to choose one examination among the remaining four examinations and one elective examination outside the Area.  The elective examination may be selected from outside the Divinity School with the approval of the Area faculty. 

A student concentrating in Religious Ethics will submit for the oral examination a 20-25 page paper which typically engages at least one major thinker, relevant primary materials, and also important secondary scholarship with respect to a question pertinent to the student’s scholarly aspirations. This paper should have a thesis in light of which the student explicates and assesses the thinker(s) chosen and should advance, through that engagement, a defense of the thesis. The paper should be distributed to examiners at least two weeks prior to the oral examination.

The distinctive business of the oral examination is to engage the submitted paper and pursue other lines of inquiry, especially, but not limited to, the written examinations.


Each written examination is four hours long, closed book.   The oral examination is two hours long.   Successful completion of the Qualifying Examinations requires passing grades on the written examinations, the research paper, and the oral examination. 

Qualifying Examinations in Religious Ethics and Faculty Supervisors

Each exam will be drafted by two members of the Religious Ethics faculty and will be read by all full-time faculty members in the Religious Ethics area for the student’s oral defense.   Students applying to the Area through an internal petition and students who are drafting their program of study are to have both faculty supervisors overseeing each examination sign off on their forms.   Faculty who oversee the drafting of the Qualifying Examinations are:

Guidelines for the Doctoral Dissertation

Dissertation Guidelines can be found here

Upcoming Courses

Ethics Area Classes 2018-19 and 2019-20
This schedule is subject to change. This document was created in the autumn of 2017.
* indicates an undergraduate class



Sarah Fredericks -- Religion, Society, and Culture
Sarah Fredericks -- Religious Ethics and the Sciences
Richard Miller – RETH 30802 Contemporary Religious Ethics I
Richard Miller – RETH 42802 Rights & Justice


*Sarah Fredericks -- Environmental Ethics
Sarah Fredericks -- Environmental Justice and Eco-Justice
Richard Miller – RETH 30803 Contemporary Religious Ethics II
*Richard Miller – Religion, Ethics, and the Problem of War
William Schweiker – Technology and Ethics
William Schweiker – Moral Theology and Philosophical Ethics


*William Schweiker – Classics In Social And Political Thought
William Schweiker – Political Theology



* William Schweiker – Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason
William Schweiker – RETH 31100: History of Religious and Theological Ethics I
Richard Miller – RETH 45502 Religion and the Political Order
Richard Miller – The Ethics of Memory


*Sarah Fredericks – Climate Ethics
Sarah Fredericks – Pragmatism and Religious Ethics
*Richard Miller – Reading Augustine’s Confessions
Richard Miller – RETH 52104 Augustine, Kierkegaard, and the Problem of Love
William Schweiker – RETH 31200: History of Religious and Theological Ethics II
William Schweiker – RETH 4440 Methods and Theories in Comparative Religious Ethics


Sarah Fredericks – RETH 51204 Sustainability
Sarah Fredericks – Collective Agency and Responsibility
*Laurie Zoloth – Justice in an Unjust World

Selected Religious Ethics Courses

This list is a sample of courses offered in this area and is for informational purposes only. For current and upcoming courses, visit

RETH 30600 Introduction to Theological Ethics. Schweiker
RETH 30802 Contemporary Religious Ethics I and 30803, II.  Miller
RETH 31100 History of Theological Ethics I and 31200, Part II. Schweiker
RETH 31500 The Letters of Cicero and Seneca. Nussbaum
RETH 32000 Religion and Political Liberalism. Nussbaum
RETH 36002 The Ethics of War: Foundational Texts. Miller
RETH 40200 Beyond Morality: Nietzsche and Kierkegaard. Schweiker
RETH 41000 Feminist Philosophy. Nussbaum
RETH 41300 Modern Roman Catholic Moral Theology. Schweiker
RETH 41500 Decision Making: Principles and Foundations. Nussbaum
RETH 42500 Anger and Hatred in the Western Philosophic Tradition. Nussbaum
RETH 42604 Collective Guilt, Shame, and Responsibility. Fredericks
RETH 42802 Rights and Justice.  Miller
RETH 43302 The Ethics of Belief. Miller
RETH 44000 Methods and Theories in Comparative Religious Ethics. Schweiker
RETH 44802 Contemporary Social and Political Ethics. Miller
RETH 45102 Religion, Medicine, and Ethics. Miller
RETH 45502 Religion and the Political Order. Miller
RETH 46600 Self, World, Other: The Thought of Paul Tillich. Schweiker
RETH 50315 Amartya Sen’s Philosophical Work. Nussbaum
RETH 51204 Sustainability. Fredericks
RETH 51802 Climate Change Ethics. Fredericks
RETH 52104 Augustine, Kierkegaard, and the Problem of Love. Miller